Antibiotics are produced substances that can kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, normal and tumor cells or inhibit their growth. However, today not all existing antibiotics are produced by living cells, scientists have learned to modify them using chemical methods and relate these to the semi-synthetic antibiotics. It should be said that not only antibiotics can defeat bacteria and viruses, there is a fully synthetic antibacterial agents: sulfonamides, nitrofuranovye preparations, etc.
Soil samples were studied worldwide in the search for microorganisms which were able to produce materials useful in the fight against infectious bacteria. As a result, today, we have a lot of antibiotics, including penicillin, streptomycin, aeromitsin, terramycin. But some antibiotics in addition to the effects at disease causing bacteria may be toxic to the organism.
It is not yet clear how do antibiotics stop the growth of bacteria. It is believed that antibiotics prevent bacteria to obtain necessary for their growth nutrients. Some patients can observe a special sensitivity (allergy) to some antibiotics.
General classification of antibiotics divides them into two main "camps":
– Broad-spectrum drugs ( they are highly effective for the vast number of bacteria)
– Narrow-spectrum antibiotics (act against specific bacteria pathogens)
Classification of antibiotics depends from the orientation of their action:
1.Macrolides belong to the modern group of broad spectrum antibiotics.
– Drugs of this group are less allergenic and toxic;
– Belong to the broad-spectrum antibiotics;
– Active against gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria and atypical flora;
– Penetrate inside the microbe, make bacteriostatic action and prevent the growth and division of pathogenic cells;
– Do not cause cross with penicillin allergy.
Macrolides are used to treat chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract infections.
2. Penicillins belong to a group of antibiotics that requires a long course of treatment and the frequent reception of the antibiotic.
– Broad-spectrum drugs;
– Have a pronounced bactericidal effect;
– Have an active effect on atypical flora, gram negative and gram positive bacteria;
– Level of concentration of penicillin in the inflammation determined by the level of its concentration in blood plasma;
– Long course of treatment and frequent reception of the antibiotic.
These agents have a broad spectrum of activity and are suitable for the treatment of upper respiratory tract, digestive system and respiratory tract infections.
3. Cephalosporins (The mechanism of action of these drugs is similar to Penicillins).
– Have a structure similar to penicillin;
– May cause allergies in sensitive patients.
Cephalosporins can be used in the following cases: respiratory diseases, gonorrhea, pyelonephritis, severe upper respiratory infection, prevention of complications before large-scale surgical operations.
– Broad-spectrum antibiotics;
– Have a strong bactericidal effect;
– Kill cells of microbial pathogens;
– Have effect at atypical flora and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Preparations of this group are used for the treatment of sinusitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, various diseases of the upper respiratory tract, urogenital infectious.
Our online pharmacy offers you such antibacterial preparation as Prulifloxacin. This preparation belongs to the group of Fluoroquinolones.
Prulifloxacin is the prodrug of Ulifloxacin. It is a broad-spectrum oral antibacterial agent. Prulifloxacin is metabolised into ulifloxacin after absorption. The drug has a long elimination half-life. It inhibits the bacterial DNA gyrase, disrupts DNA synthesis and bacteria’s growth and division, causes pronounced morphological changes and rapid destruction of the bacterial cell.
Indications for use:
– Bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms (acute and chronic respiratory disease (in the acute phase), bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis);
– Infections of upper respiratory tract (medial otitis, sinusitis, mastoiditis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis);
– Infection of the kidneys and urinary tract infections (cystitis, pyelonephritis);
– Infection of pelvic and genital organs (prostatitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, tubular abscess, pelvioperitonit, gonorrhea, chancroid, chlamydia);
– Infection of the abdominal cavity;
– Bacterial infections of gastrointestinal tract and biliary tract (peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscesses, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, campylobacteriosis, yersiniosis, shigellosis, cholera);
– Infections of skin and soft tissue (infectious sores, wounds, burns);
– Abscesses of bones and joints (osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, sepsis);
– Infections due to immune deficiency (arising in the treatment of immunosuppressive drugs or in patients with neutropenia);
– Prevention of infections during surgical interventions.
Sometimes antibiotic treatment requires a long period of time and sometimes it is used as a prophylactic measure. Infections are less likely to lead to fatal outcomes with the advent of antibiotics. Fortunately, today, infectious diseases are not a threat to human life.