Types of diabetes
First of all, diabetes divides into two main types:
– Insulin-dependent (I type) diabetes, formerly called juvenile;
– Insulin-independent (II type) diabetes or adult-onset diabetes.
Diabetes type I occurs mostly in people aged under 30 years, 10-15 % of the total number of patients have this form of diabetes. One of the causes of type I diabetes is virus in the beta-cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas which produces insulin. In some patients the disclosure of diabetes is preceded by viral infections, particularly, by rubella, mumps, hepatitis.
The majority of patients (about 85 %) have non-insulin dependent (II type) diabetes. Nearly 15% of these patients have normal weight and the rest suffer from obesity. In other words, obesity and diabetes almost in all cases go hand in hand.
Scientists indicate that viruses infect beta cells of the pancreas only those people who have a genetic predisposition to diabetes. In many people type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease which is based on a defect of the immune system. Doctors can establish whether there is a risk of developing diabetes, caused by disorders of the immune system, using recently developed methods for the determination of specific proteins in the blood – antigens.
Causes of diabetes
It is important to indicate that causes of diabetes type I and II are totally different. In patients with type I diabetes beta cells disintegrate due to the viral infection or an autoimmune aggression. In patients with type II diabetes the beta cells produce enough or even high amount of insulin, but the fabric loses property to take its specific signal. If diabetes combined with obesity, the major cause of tissue insensitivity to insulin is that adipose tissue blocks the action of insulin like a screen. To break through this blockade, the beta-cells start to operate with an increased load and eventually this leads to their depletion (relative failure becomes absolute). However, and this is very important to emphasize, at the same time insulin-independent diabetes does not transfer in insulin dependent. The cause of the disease in patients with type II diabetes with normal body weight is the imperception of the insulin signal by receptors located on cell surfaces.
Weakness, dryness of the mouth, itching appears along with increased thirst. The development of diabetes violates not only carbohydrate but also fat and protein metabolism. As a result, patients with diabetes have low resistance to many infectious diseases.
Whatever may be the root cause of diabetes, the body slows down the process of turning sugar coming from food and contained in the blood into animal starch (glycogen) which is deposited in the liver and muscles. Increased level of sugar in blood leads to enhanced excretion of it with the urine. Allocating of large amounts of fluid from the body tissues causes dehydration, patients feel thirst. Instead of 1.5-2 liters of fluid they drink up to 8-10 liters a day.
True insulin deficiency or impaired perception of it by cells, slows not only the conversion of glycogen to glucose but also combustion of glucose in tissues. Consequently, the body has to use fat as an energy material.
Fatty acids are excreted from the fat depots and then split. This process leads to an accumulation in the blood and tissues the so called ketone bodies: acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood provokes poisoning of the body and especially the central nervous system, and it contributes to the development of severe complications of diabetes - diabetic coma. Patient experiences violation of vital functions, including breathing and blood circulation. If time is not taken in time, the patient may die.
Treatment of diabetes
The main goal of treatment of the patient with any form of diabetes is to normalize all kinds of metabolism in the body, reduce blood sugar, and prevent the development of serious complications.
Means of treatment vary depending on the type of disease. Patients suffering from insulin- dependent (I type) diabetes should make insulin injections. Patients with type II diabetes are prescribed hypoglycemic agents. In some cases patients can normalize blood sugar by diet.
Our online pharmacy offers you such preparations for diabetes treatment: Actos, Amaryl, Avandia, DDAVP, Glucophage , Glucotrol, Januvia, Prandin , Precose, Starlix.
Almost all those preparations except DDAVP can be used for treatment of diabetes type II.
Indications for DDAVP:
It is used in diagnosis and treatment of vasopressin-sensitive central diabetes insipidus, the definition of renal concentrating ability.