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4RX Store > Medication List > Generic Migraines drugs

Generic Migraines drugs


What is migraine and why is it dangerous?

There is an opinion that migraine is a disease lazy people who have it due to boredom, a kind of whim of people with a free time excess have.

However, only those who are not affected by this scourge think so.

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Symptoms of migraine

In fact, many think that any headache is a migraine, but this is absolutely incorrect. A number of factors make migraine different from usual malaise due to fatigue or flu.

1) Specific allocation of the ache. One of the distinctive characteristics of migraine is the allocation of ache, which covers only one hemisphere of the head or a part of it.

2) The nature of the pain. For migraine, the intense pulsing ache is typical. Some say that it resembles an attack of acute toothache.

3) The severity of pain. A migraine attack literally knocks down, taking out the capability to engage in any useful activity. The condition can be accompanied by light and noise phobia.

The mechanism of the occurrence of migraine

Despite the fact that migraine has been known since ancient times, the principle of the formation of pain is still not fully understood.

With a high degree of probability, it can be said that migraine is not associated with intracranial and blood pressure, nor is it caused by tumors and injuries, and is not a consequence of mental stress. There is a correlation between migraine and stroke, but whether migraine is a consequence of stroke or its cause is not completely known.

At the moment, there are several hypotheses that explain the mechanics of the occurrence of pain, and all of them, one way or another, relate to the vessels of the brain. Apparently, the pulsating nature of pain is associated with this.

Among the most possible causes of the pain syndrome is the narrowing of the vascular lumen, which causes the insufficient blood supply to certain parts of the brain - that is why pain in migraines has a clear localization.

According to another version, the vessels, due to various reasons, expand unevenly, provoking a reaction in the form of pain.

If the internal mechanics of migraine is more interested for specialists, the factors that directly provoke an attack are an urgent issue for ordinary patients.

Causes and triggering factors

Fortunately, the experience accumulated over many centuries in monitoring migraine patients has revealed that it usually precedes a wave of pain. The main triggers for migraines are generally known:

- Neurological factors: Stress, fatigue, strong emotions, and so on lead to a migraine attack.

- Nutritional factors. We have already mentioned alcohol. And the leader in this sad competition is not vodka, but sparkling wines, champagne, etc. That is, drinks containing gas that accelerate the absorption of alcohol and it can lead to an acute episode. Other foodstuffs such as nuts, chocolate, cheese, fish, can also trigger migraine attack.

- Hormonal medications. Often, migraine attacks develop in women who use oral birth control.

- Violations of sleep patterns. Regardless of its type whether it is lack of sleep or its excess.

- External factors. Weather changes, atmospheric pressure sharp drop can provoke an attack.

- Going to another climate zone.

Types of migraine headaches

The ICD-10 International Classifier of Diseases distinguishes these types of migraine:

1) Common migraine (migraine without aura): a localized throbbing headache. It is considered the most common type, although it is not possible to calculate the exact share in the total number of migraine diseases. Many patients do not go to the doctor, as they take migraines for a common headache (the so-called tension headache).

2) Classical migraine (migraine with aura): an aura, in this case, is a complex of specific sensations that precede an attack and accompany it. The specific manifestations of the aura are purely individual and can be visual (apparent zigzags, colorful spots, flashes of light), sound ("ringing in the ears"), tactile (tingling and numbness), olfactory, taste. Less common is a violation of a sense of balance and position in space, a distortion of perspective, the apparent size of objects and the distance to them (Alice's syndrome). Sometimes the aura manifests itself in the form of an increasing sense of anxiety.

3) Migraine status: prolonged seizures that do not go away after sleep and rest, sometimes continue for days, bringing the patient to exhaustion.

4) Complicated migraine: often accompanied by loss of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, epileptic seizures. An attack may result in a stroke.

5) Different rare migraines: this category includes such specific varieties as retinal migraine (accompanied by the appearance of a blind spot in one or two eyes), ophthalmoplegic migraine (pain in the optic nerve) and other rare species.

The consequences of migraines

As noted above, a prolonged attack of complicated migraine can result in a migraine stroke. The vessel affected by the attack loses its ability to expand after a spasm, which leads to blockage, the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque and the development of an ischemic focus.

However, as a rule, migraine does not lead to such deplorable results. The consequences of migraine can be called rather social. Exhausting prolonged headaches disrupt the normal alternation of sleep and rest, undermine the vitality and markedly reduce the quality of life.

Patients with headaches suffer significant financial losses, which consist of the costs of direct treatment, as well as lost profits due to forced time off, which are not paid for the most part. After all, not only patients but also doctors are not serious enough about migraines!

Migraine has a negative impact on social activity, breaks social ties, harms family life, which cannot but affect the patient’s general depression. According to statistics, people suffering from migraine are diagnosed with depression three times more often than healthy individuals.

This is more than enough to take the disease seriously and not neglect treatment.

Prevalence and risk groups

Headache in general and migraine in particular is one of the most common ailments. According to WHO estimates, from 50 to 75% of the able-bodied population of the world experienced a headache over the past year. A third of them complained of migraines.

At the same time, the harm of migraine is globally underestimated, the attitude to this disease is sarcastically disregard. Meanwhile, according to 2013 data, migraine ranks sixth in the world in terms of the number of years living in a state of disability (YLD).

Who is at risk? According to the WHO, the disorder affects people during puberty and reaches its maximum by the age of 35–45 years. Notably, women are much more prone to migraines. Migraine has a genetic nature, thus, heredity plays a large role in the likelihood of disease.

How to treat migraine headaches?

The basis of the diagnosis is a thorough interview of an individual and matching of complaints with the symptoms indicated in the International Classifier of Headaches.

Sometimes it is possible to identify objective symptoms, which can be expressed in redness of the fingertips, such as from severe cold (Raynaud's syndrome), moistening of the palms, hyper-excitability of the facial muscles, but in most cases the diagnosis of migraine is possible only on the basis of individuals complaints. Because of this, according to WHO estimates, only 40% of patients receive the correct diagnosis.

Medication therapies

Therapies for migraines are used to eliminate the symptoms of the disease - to eliminate severe pain. For migraines with aura, the drug can be taken in advance to avoid an attack or to alleviate it. All drugs used for migraine can be divided into main groups:

1) Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Universal painkillers, most of which can be purchased at pharmacies without a prescription. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or Diclofenac.

2) Ergot drugs. The alkaloids contained in ergot can tone the blood vessels of the brain and inhibit the production of serotonin, which causes pain during migraines. In this regard, drugs based on ergot extracts are highly targeted anti-migraine agents that are practically useless for tension headache (GBN) and other types. They can be used both directly during an attack for its relief, and for prophylactic purposes - in courses of up to two weeks. This group of drugs has a number of side effects and contraindications (for example, it is not prescribed for patients with coronary heart disease) and is used only as directed by a doctor.

3) Triptans (5-hydroxytryptamine derivatives). These drugs stop vascular spasm, acting on the vascular wall, block the pain signal at the level of trigeminal receptors. Triptans are notable for relieving symptoms of complicated migraine - light and noise phobia, nausea and vomiting. They are also highly targeted against migraines.

Established Efficiency (> 2 Class I Studies)
Probable effectiveness (1 study of class I or 2 studies of class II)
Potential Effectiveness (1 Class II Study)
Antiepileptic drugs:
- sodium Divalproex
- sodium Valproate
- Topiramate
Antidepressants: - Amitriptyline - Venlafaxine
Long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (Lisinopril)
Frovatriptan (for short-term prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine)
Beta-adrenergic blockers:
- Atenolol
- Nadolol
Alpha-2-adrenergic agonists:
- Clonidine
- Guanfacine
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (Candesartan)
Antiepileptic drug (Carbamazepine)
Beta-adrenergic blockers:
- Nebivolol
- Pindolol
First-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic and local anesthetic properties (Cyproheptadine)
Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (Candesartan)

At our med store you can buy the following migraine medications from the class of triptans:

- Imitrex (Sumatriptan) by Sun Pharma;

- Maxalt (Rizatriptan) by Cipla.

Another medication which is included in the Migraine treatment section is Depakote (Divalproex) by Aventis Pharma. It is based on valproic acid and is used for the prevention of migraines.

Other medications for migraine such as analgesics can be found at Pain medicine section of our med store.

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